Radical rectal cancer surgery is a surgical method compared to palliative resection of rectal cancer. Palliative surgery is to perform local resection of the tumor, while radical surgery is to resect the rectal tumor and at least 10 centimeters above the tumor and at least 2 centimeters below it. Blood vessels, lymph, nerves, fat and other tissues in the rectum and drainage area.
Rectal cancer is a cancer with a relatively high incidence rate. It has a great impact on the health of patients and may be life-threatening at any time. After suffering from this disease, the most important thing is to treat it in time. The treatment of rectal cancer is still based on surgery. In addition to palliative surgery, radical surgery is also available. So what is radical rectal cancer surgery?
What Is Radical Rectal Cancer Surgery
Radical resection of rectal cancer is actually a surgical method compared to palliative resection of rectal cancer. Palliative surgery is to perform local excision of the tumor. Radical surgery is also called extended resection of rectal tumors. The scope of resection includes rectal tumors, as well as tissues such as rectum and lymph, blood vessels, nerves, and fat in the drainage area that are at least 10 centimeters above the tumor and at least 2 centimeters below the tumor.
The curative effect of this surgical method is relatively good, but whether it can be cured depends on the clinical stage of rectal cancer. If the tumor has metastasized, or even distant metastases, even if radical surgery is performed, there is still a possibility of recurrence and re-metastasis possible.
What Are the Radical Operations for Rectal Cancer?
1. Combined abdominal perineal resection
Abdominal perineal resection is one of the more common radical operations for rectal cancer. This surgical method is suitable for lower rectal cancer less than seven centimeters from the anal verge. The scope of resection includes the tissue in the ischiorectal fossa, anal canal, and levator ani parts. Before resection, it is necessary to clean the lymph nodes next to the corresponding arteries, and then make a permanent artificial anus on the abdominal wall of the left lower abdomen. The effect of this surgical treatment is more thorough, and the cure rate is relatively high.
2. Anterior Resection of Rectal Cancer
This operation also includes rectal cancer detection and resection, which is actually a low abdominal resection and extraperitoneal primary anastomosis and is suitable for upper rectal cancers larger than 12 centimeters. This procedure requires intraperitoneal resection of most of the rectum, followed by an extraperitoneal anastomosis of the sigmoid colon and rectum. The damage caused by this surgical method is relatively small, and the original anus can be preserved. However, if the tumor cells have spread very severely and have eroded the surrounding tissues, this method is not recommended for treatment.
3. Resection of Rectal Cancer with Preservation of Anal Sphincter
If the disease is detected at an early stage, anal sphincter-preserving rectal cancer resection can be used, which is a radical surgical method for early rectal cancer. However, if the tumor is already very large, or if lymphatic metastasis occurs, this method of treatment is not complete. At this time, it is best to combine it with transabdominal perineal resection.