Sigmoid colon cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the sigmoid colon, which is the area of the large intestine located above the rectum. It originates from the cells of the glandular epithelium and accounts for 34% of the total number of cases of colorectal cancer.
The exact causes of sigmoid colon cancer are not known, but there are several factors that may increase the risk of developing this disease. These include a sedentary lifestyle and an unhealthy diet that is low in fiber and high in fatty, fried, and spicy foods. Other risk factors include constipation, which increases the contact time between toxic food processing products and the organ mucosa.
In its early stages, sigmoid colon cancer often has no symptoms or only mild symptoms, which can make it difficult to diagnose. As the disease progresses, symptoms may include abdominal pain and discomfort, flatulence, a feeling of incomplete bowel movement, and an alternation of constipation and diarrhea. In some cases, it may be possible to feel a tumor-like formation in the left half of the abdomen.
Diagnosis of sigmoid colon cancer is made based on a combination of factors including complaints, medical history, external examination data, ultrasound, rectosigmoscopy, irrigoscopy, MRI, biopsy and other studies.
Treatment for sigmoid colon cancer typically involves surgery to remove the affected part of the colon. In some cases, chemotherapy or radiation therapy may also be used to help control the disease. The prognosis for sigmoid colon cancer depends on many factors including the stage at which it is diagnosed and the overall health of the patient.